Semin Vasc Surg. 2012 Mar;25(1):18-24. doi: 10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2012.02.002. Review
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New technologies have produced a revolution in primary varicose vein treatments. Duplex ultrasound is now used for preoperative diagnosis, postoperative surveillance, and during many procedures. Ultrasound has also altered our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic venous disease. Laser and radiofrequency saphenous ablations are common. Classic techniques, such as sclerotherapy, high ligation, stripping, and phlebectomy, have been improved. Magnetic resonance venography, computed tomographic venography, and intravascular ultrasound have improved diagnostic capabilities. New strategies like ambulatory selective varices ablation under local anesthesia (ASVAL) and conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency (CHIVA) raise important questions about how to manage these patients.